The Internet’s Layered Network Architecture


We all know the Internet. It’s the network that enables data transfer on a global scale. Its magnitude is staggering: there are about 5 billion users, 200 million active websites, 300 billion emails sent daily and 40 thousand Google searches every second. We access it by different means (WiFi, optical fiber, coaxial cable…), and with various devices (computers, smartphones...

Binary 001: Counting and Calculating Like a Computer


As we all know, a computer only knows two things: 1s and 0s. Every letter in this sentence, every color, every second of a video or of a piece of music, every web page, every program is nothing other than a long string of 1s and 0s. This is binary, and if we hope to communicate efficiently with these machines as programmers, we must understand how this base 2 numbering system works. Why do...